Special Education is a type of education given to children with special needs and learning disabilities, which involves individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, with adapted equipment and materials. It is also known as special needs education or aided education.
There are different types of learning disabilities such as dyslexia, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), hearing impairment, visual impairment, intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, etc.
TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
• Dyslexia is a learning disability that makes it hard to recognize, spell and decode words. It occurs when there is a problem with the way the brain processes graphic symbols. Dyslexia is a neurological and often genetic condition, not a result of poor teaching, instruction or upbringing, and it has nothing to do with intelligence.
• Autism refers to a broad range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behavior, speech, and nonverbal communication. Autism is mostly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Because autism is a spectrum disorder, each person has a distinct set of strengths and challenges.
• ADHD (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopment type. It is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. The symptoms appear before a person is 12 and can persist into adulthood. it causes a problem in settings like school, home or recreational activities.
• Hearing Impairment is a condition where one hears partially or doesn’t hear at all. A person with mild hearing impairment may have difficulty understanding speech. People who are totally deaf rely on sign language or read lips.
• Visual Impairment is a decreased ability to see to a degree, a child with visual impairment or partial blindness will have difficulty seeing what is written on the board and might have a problem with taking part in social activities with their peers.
• Intellectual Disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in cognitive functioning and skills. An example is a child with Down syndrome. This low intellectual level can make it hard for students to take care of themselves and make it tough for them to communicate their needs and feelings.
• Emotional Disturbance is an invisible condition that impacts a person’s mental functioning. In some cases, they could be diagnosed with severe disorders like bipolar disorder or borderline personality disorder. They may become angry, mean or violent or they may withdraw themselves and isolate themselves.
CAUSES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
There are different causes of learning disabilities such as illness during and after birth of the child, premature or prolonged labor, consumption of hard drugs and alcohol during pregnancy, physical trauma, and poor growth in the uterus.
WAYS OF HELPING PEOPLE WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
In most developed countries, educators modify teaching methods and environment so that the maximum numbers of students are served in general education environments. Integration can reduce social stigma and improve academic achievement for many students. The opposite of special education is general education. General education is the standard curriculum presented without special teaching methods or support. A student enrolled in special education can sometimes enroll in a general education setting to learn along without disabilities. Children with learning disabilities can be helped in the following way;
-Be a good listener
-Identify how your child learns best
-Be an advocate for your child
-Emphasize healthy lifestyle habits
-Clarify your goals
-Keep the focus